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Related Words, Beliefs, Background for Choice #29
affirmative action -- in decision making related to offering jobs or extending other opportunities to individual applicants, preferentially favoring members of some minority group to make up for this group’s past, unjust exclusion from the chance to have certain employment, educational or other opportunities.
authoritarian government, forms it can take-- names of some possibilities: Absolute Monarchy, Autocracy, Despotism , Fascist Dictatorship, Marxist Totalitarian State, Military Dictatorship, Military Junta, Mob Rule, Police State, Single Party Rule, Theocracy
a form of social control that requires individuals relinquish certain
rights and strictly obey the dictates of whomever is making these
demands (and enforcing them): a national government, political party,
dogmatic religious organization, etc. The
authoritarian regimes are typically undemocratic and often oppressive.
authoritarianism and collectivism--are alike in that in both the individual gives up certain rights and aspirations and conforms to the beliefs, goals, and expectations of the larger whole (nation, political party, religious group, working group. etc.) that he or she is part of. They typically differ though in the manner in which members submit to such authority: authoritarian institutions are undemocratic and affected individuals have no real choice, whereas many collectives operate with voluntary participation and leadership seeks consensus agreement of members.
authoritarian personality--describes one who rigidly conforms, is intolerant, prefers living in an authoritarian system, and seeks servile acceptance of that authority and obedience. Note that those actually in the positions of authority may not possess this type of personality.
autocracy -- government in which absolute power is vested in a single person , also known as absolutism
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Cognitive Domain--a
classification for the thinking-related objectives that educators have
for students. At the bottom are those that involve lower level
processes, beginning with memorizing facts without understanding.
Beyond this, many teachers seek to promote higher level thinking. Accordingly their objectives may steadily move up this
taxonomy to involve comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and
brainwashing -- a forcible indoctrination to persuade someone to give up certain beliefs, attitudes and practices in favor of those espoused by whomever is behind the brainwashing.
citizenship -- membership in a local, state, or national community that brings with it certain rights, privileges (voting, etc), and protection (as mandated by laws), and can involve meeting certain duties (pledging allegiance, paying taxes, etc). Being a good citizen is commonly thought to involve working for the betterment of the community.
civics -- broadly it can be thought of as a social science concerned with the rights and duties of citizens, but more narrowly it refers to these in the educational content of a particular political or cultural tradition.
corruption—dishonest, unethical, possibly illegal behavior, especially while serving the public in a position of trust, with the motive of personal gain (increase in wealth, power, etc.) / pleasure. Theft through cheating or embezzlement, bribery, conflict of interest, and unequal treatment of people with favors for friends / penalties for opponents are examples.
critical thinking skills—generally refers to skills / ability to take facts and form judgments. More specifically it may refer to the skills / ability to do an analysis (breaking down into component parts) of a problem or situation based on facts, how they may be related, cause and effect, logical reasoning, forming and testing hypotheses, etc. And do this to rigorous standards: with enough competence, experience and knowledge to tackle a problem or case, in an error-free manner , free of wishful thinking, with integrity not prejudice or bias, etc.. Depending on the problem or situation as much or more synthesizing (putting together) may be required. All of this is done to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion, solution, or judgment that fairly represents the situation, is plausible, and meets other tests—most critically it eventually stands up to others’ judgment /appeals, attempts to reproduce, etc. And in this way gains acceptance
democracy -- government by the people, typically controlled by majority vote of the people as a whole, as opposed to government controlled by a particular class, group, or individual. Democracies can be direct--where citizens' votes directly make decisions--or representative--where citizens elect individuals to politically lead and represent them in a legislature with those representatives casting votes on their behalf. Direct democracy is the type practiced in Athens, Greece nearly 2500 years ago. It is perhaps better suited for governing smaller institutions (communes, workplaces, communities, cities)--although ballot issues decided in recent California referendum elections provide an example of its large scale application. Use of referendums also illustrates that representative democracies sometimes allow the people to directly decide certain matters. A democratic government where a constitution guarantees individual rights and civil liberties, along with providing a legal framework, is known as a liberal democracy.
democracy and science--the origins of both can be traced to ancient Greece, and both require social environments valuing honesty, reason, skeptical evaluation of new ideas, debate, and free inquiry. One science writer (Watson Davis) way went so as far as proclaiming "the scientific way is the democratic way!" Yet while science and democracy feedback loops as key parts--one involving hypothesis testing, the other people voting--there is an big difference. In deciding whether some scientific hypothesis is to be embraced, decisions are based not on polls where all votes count equally but rather on the verdict of those best qualified to judge how well the hypothesis fits the data!
democratic elitism-- the belief that, not all the people, but only “the best” (experts, the well educated, those who have proven themselves capable, etc) should be allowed to vote or otherwise determine important public matters. Example: A local school board composed of doctors, lawyers, university professors, bankers, business owners, etc. -- not farmers, factory workers, housewives, etc. -- determines the policies of a school district.
demagogue–a corrupt leader who plays on popular prejudices, makes false claims, and pretends to champion the causes of common people, all in an effort to get elected and gain power.
economic democracy–conceptions of it vary, but generally refers to a socioeconomic system doing some or all of the following: 1) transfers economic decision-making from the (corporate elite) few to the majority through worker management / ownership of productive enterprises, 2) generally promotes democratic local / regional control over corporate state central planning, 3) charges central government with levying taxes that allow social control of investment carried out locally/regionally, and 4) while retaining the market system, abolishes private ownership of productive resources, and wage labor. As to the latter, in worker run enterprises there are no labor costs: workers are compensated by dividing up what is left after other costs have been subtracted from sales revenues. With 3) and 4) in this conception, economic democracy looks like a form of socialism
egalitarianism -- the belief that all human beings should have the same rights, opportunities and privileges.
emotional intelligence--a term first described by Mayer and Salovey in 1990, and popularized by Daniel Goleman in a 1995 book. Of interest to both psychological researchers, and the general public, its meaning is still evolving. According to Mayer, etal in a 2008 Annual Review of Psychology article, emotional intelligence concerns the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought." Goleman's latest conception of emotional intelligence sees four abilities as contributing to it: the ability to 1) be aware of one's own emotions, 2) control those emotions, 3) sense, comprehend, and respond to other's emotions, and 4) help other's emotions develop in the context of a relationship. Some feel that EQ (emotional intelligence quotient) is as important as IQ in predicting a student's future success. The last decade has seen many schools mount efforts to help students build emotional intelligence.
ethics -- the study of right and wrong in matters of conduct
fascism -- a centralized authoritarian system of government that exalts law and order, national pride, race, economic and social regimentation, and the survival of the fittest , while suppressing dissent, and trampling individual freedom. Playing on prejudice in using propaganda and scapegoating minorities are among tactics used by fascists.
fear--a strong, primary emotion associated with unpleasant anticipation of danger and pain.
fear, using it to achieve goals—authoritarian leaders/demagogues often seek to incite fear in an effort to attain certain cultural, workplace, or political goals. The belief that people are motivated more out of fear than love justifies employing this approach
feedback loop inherent in democracy: Elections provide citizens with a mechanism to change government policies or legislators, ideally functioning as follows: a) citizens provide input which shapes legislator actions/government policies, b) an election provides each citizen with a chance to answer the question: “Do you like your legislator’s actions / policies enacted? c) election results provide feedback from citizen voters leading to removal / replacement / reinforcement related to legislators / policies d) this feedback from voters—and additional input from citizens directed to new legislators—serves as input, and steps in this loop are repeated, ideally until voters are satisfied.
freedom of the press & speech–something a government can grant its citizens and news / media organizations–believed to be a prerequisite for democracy. Thomas Jefferson underscored the importance of a free press by saying, "Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter." More recently the United Nations enshrined this–along with freedom of speech–as a basic human right, proclaiming, "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers." This language, from The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, has been amended to include that exercising this right carries “special duties and responsibilities” and “may therefore be subject to certain restrictions…[f]or respect of the rights or reputation of others…or the protection of national security or of public order…or of public health or morals.”
global education -- wholistic education that focuses on whole systems and emphasizes the interconnections and interdependencies that traditional, reductionist education often overlooks. It extends boundaries of concern, and strives to involve the whole person -- seen as a thinking, feeling, and doing creature.
government, branches of--in western democratic and other governments there typically are three: 1) the legislative, which often consists of elected representatives who make laws, 2) the executive, often including the head of the government, is responsible for enforcing laws and the daily functioning / administration of the state, 3) the judicial, typically consisting of courts, judges, etc., interprets the law and administers justice. Ideally, a separation of powers gives each branch independence, while providing checks and balances against abuse.
Hobbesian view of human nature -- According to 17th century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, human beings were selfish, aggressive, fiercely competitive, highly acquisitive creatures who were incapable of self restraint. With this dim view of human nature, he felt that the authoritarian state offered the only way to keep human beings from killing each other in constant warfare and destroying civilization.
human capital -- investment made in people, including improving their productive capabilities and health due to investments in job training, education or medical care.
illiterate -- inability to read and write due to lack of education, either because of lack of opportunity or motivation, not because of physical or mental defects.
justice -- implementing what is just, defined in various ways as being reasonable, proper, lawful, right, fair, deserved, merited, etc. For some, justice is intimately connected with fairness, a connection with three dimensions: equal treatment, the degree to which exercising freedom and liberty is to be allowed, and reward for contributing to the common good .
justice, scales of–a metaphorical scale—imagine a rod with two pans attached at each end hanging down perpendicular to the rod, with the midpoint of rod sitting on a pivot point—that can be used to weigh the strength of arguments for or against some appeal to the rule of law. They are linked to the Roman goddess Justitia--often depicted holding them in one hand, and a sword—representing the power of reason and justice—in the other.law: civil vs. criminal--the former refers to the means by which individual rights are protected, the latter with offenses that harm (or potentially could harm) the entire community. In civil cases the responsibility for demonstrating harm and seeking remedy lies with the individual affected; in criminal cases the state must pursue violators and seek remedy--which may be imprisonment.
law: private vs. public--the former involves relationships between individuals (including corporations), the latter with issues involving the state and welfare of society (including penal law, and regulatory statutes, etc.)
law, rule of–
learning domains--educational activities and associated objectives are sometimes categorized using three domains: 1) cognitive--relates to comprehending and intellectual processing of information and knowledge in forming concepts, having ideas, and having beliefs; 2) affective--relates to the emotions associated with learning experiences; 3) psychomotor--relates to the physical activity and motor skills component of learning. Very loosely these learning domains can be related to thinking, feeling, and doing.
liberal education--the Association of American Colleges and Universities describes this as "a philosophy of education that empowers individuals with broad knowledge and transferable skills, and a stronger sense of values, ethics, and civic engagement ... characterized by challenging encounters with important issues, and more a way of studying than a specific course or field of study"
person paid to act on behalf of a particular corporation, union,
organization, etc. in aggressively promoting their agenda to elected
representatives or those in positions of power in governments.
In some democracies, (like the United States), lobbyists help
funnel campaign contributions to politicians--which often subvert the
will of the people critics charge.
control of schools—the philosophy that the citizens of a community—including those
whose taxes go to support the local school—should have the dominant
say in what school policies are and what is taught.
Local citizens would exercise this control by electing school
board members. Typically,
to one extent or another, authorities at higher levels of government
(county, state, or national) may wrest such control away from the
community where the school is located.
merit system / meritocracy -- a system in which people are promoted based on their merit, which generally refers to their education, expertise, qualifications, demonstrated ability to do the job, experience, etc -- rather than who they know, their membership in some favored group, etc. The term meritocracy can refer to either a society, government, or both. For some a meritocracy is a society in which each person’s status (in occupational, civic influence, social terms) is based on individual merit rather than political, economic, family or other factors. Others would carry the merit system way of doing things to logical extreme and put a meritorious elite in charge of running a government or managing a society.
military education and training--its goal is to prepare individuals for a life of military service. It can begin in private military schools where parents send their young children, become physically demanding in the basic training of new military recruits, and culminate as some become military officers at prestigious national military academies.
nature vs. nurture -- refers to the ongoing debate over the extent to which human behavior is largely innate / preprogrammed by our genetic heritage or is chiefly shaped by the environment in which we are raised, what we learn from it and from those who care for and teach us as we grow. Experimental support emphasizing the importance of heredity comes from studies of identical twins (sharing the same genes) raised apart, whereas ongoing studies of the brain -- in particular findings that show how the brain can “rewire” itself in response to environmental pressures (including head injury) -- illustrate that despite the complex, innate structure of the mind, the learning environment fundamentally shapes human behavior.
paternalism -- a system in which adults are treated in a fatherly way like children, with their conduct regulated and their needs met. Typically in exchange for this care, the authority expects loyalty and that those receiving the care will accept their relinquishing of personal control.
pluralism--a societal state in which people of diverse religious, racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds all live together, both preserving aspects of their heritage and traditions and living together under the same national government.
political campaign contributions--the money and favors that individuals and groups give to candidates running for political office. Supporters view this as people extending their free speech rights; critics charge that the contributions are an attempt to buy influence and that such money from a relatively few wealthy people can subvert the will of the majority of the people.
police—a government department established to maintain order, enforce the law, and prevent and detect crime. The image of USA police department work and those doing it ranges the whole gamut, from smiling easy-going male and female, racially diverse shirt-sleeved and shorts dressed cops on bicycles joking peacefully with relaxed members of the community, to military style operations (some even are equipped with tanks) and SWAT teams lead by older males in riot gear confronting suspected criminals in tense, often violent situations. Opinions of cops held by those in the communities they operate in span the whole range from mostly good, honest guys, even unselfish public servants, doing what can be a difficult job, to corrupt, inherently violent, trigger happy, bigoted people—many of whom might otherwise have found themselves on the wrong side of the law but, wanting a sense of power over others, they decided to become cops. Hopeful—perhaps wishful thinking oriented—people lacking in cynicism felt most cops fit into the first category with only a very few “bad apples”; cynics feared more cops belonged in the second category than the first. By mid 2020, after a series of highly publicized police operations unfairly and tragically targeted African Americans, USA calls for police reform had never been louder.
propaganda -- broadly speaking, information that is designed and disseminated as part of a concerted effort to influence what individuals believe or want, and manipulate public opinion and desires.
public education--basic education supported by governments (sometimes mandated) and paid for by government-levied taxes. In many countries (including the United States) such education is tuition-free, primary and secondary (K-12), promises equal opportunities regardless of race, religion, or ability, includes instruction in civics, and is structured to promote high standards and public accountability.
schools vs. religious schools -- the contrast here is between secular schools that
are government supported , financed by taxpayers, and typically charge
no tuition, vs. schools affiliated with some religion, which typically
promote the religious beliefs of their sponsor, and charge students
ritualism vs. legalism--the contrast between these two orientations is highlighted by two societies: one in which people are excessively devoted to ritual versus another in which people are excessively devoted to conforming strictly to the law. The contrast was of interest to Confucius in ancient China. Of people in the former type of society, he wrote, "Lead [them] with excellence...put them in their place through roles and ritual practices, and in addition to developing a sense of shame, they will order themselves harmoniously. In the latter type of society, he complained, "External authorities administer punishments after illegal actions--so people generally behave well without understanding why they should."
separation of church and state -- refers to keeping separate institutions of government and religion, thereby minimizing or preventing the "meddling" of one institution in the affairs of the other. Adherents to this doctrine believe that it protects both freedom of religion and democratic principles. In a theocracy such separation can disappear.
social contract--its most important meaning refers to an agreement between the people and their rulers in which the duties and rights of each are defined and constrained. While rulers would say it serves to maintain order, the people point to it as establishing the principle that rulers have legitimacy only if they have the consent of those they govern.
socialism–generally refers to 1) various economic / political theories, ideologies, and political movements, and / or 2) an economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution
state owned enterprise—a business / corporate enterprise where the state or government has a significant stake in the ownership. They can be 100% state or government owned. Given their financial objectives—which may include making a profit—they are to be distinguished from state or government agencies—although both share pursuit of public policies.
statism–refers to belief in accepting the political authority of a central state government and its legitimacy with respect to governing, taxing, regulating—even owning—various sectors of the economy. Its opposite is anarchism. Statists value individual freedom in personal matters far less than left wing types who are today called liberals; they value individual freedom in economic matters far less than right wing types who are today called conservatives. Statists generally prefer a society where a heavily centralized state (national) government has a great deal of control over individuals and communities in terms of personal and economic matters. States where the control is total are said to be totalitarian.
superstition -- a position or belief, often with roots in cultural or religious tradition, held despite what could be characterized (by someone not holding the belief) as lack of supporting justification or evidence
technology assessment -- a procedure that involves 1) collecting information about the technology and how it will be used in meeting specified objectives, 2) identifying impacts of its use in various areas (environmental, economic, social, political, etc), 3) assessing impacts and identifying tradeoffs, 4) formulating, then examining alternatives, with quantitative models and forecasts, 5) making recommendations including designating a preferred alternative that best meets objectives while minimizing impacts / other concerns , and 6) making plans for monitoring performance
theocracy -- government by those who claim to or are believed to be divinely inspired. In its most extreme forms, there is no separation of church and state.
totalitarian government—an extreme form of statism, and the most complete and extreme form of authoritarianism, where the state has total authority which it uses to most severely restrict individual personal and economic freedom It does this by outlawing opposition political parties, prohibiting any dissent to state policies, employing propaganda to heavily shape individual thought, taking absolute control of economic life, and actively using police / surveillance / concentration camp type detention and other means to enforce / maintain its authority.
values -- abstract qualities, principles, beliefs, or aspects of behavior that a person or a whole society holds in high regard after making value judgments.
vocational training -- education and training designed to give students specific job skills and help prepare them for a particular profession or career
voter turnout--the % of the eligible (voting age, adult) population that actually votes in a nation's democratic elections. Since those who don't vote have no say in the democratic process, this number says something about how much a nation's citizens value democracy. In the United States, voter turnout in presidential elections has been around 50%. In a few countries (like Australia) turnout approaches 100% since voting is compulsory.
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