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Related Words, Beliefs, Background for Choice #43

Worldview Theme #3: Valuing Honesty, Learning

Worldview Theme #4: Spreading Disinformation / Tactical Deception

for a summary read these 5 entries in order: nature vs. nurture, gene, meme, cultural evolution, critical thinking skills

for a summary read these 5 entries in order: misinformation vs. disinformation, baffling not clarifying, false balance / both sidesism,  social media, anti-social media legislation


anti-social media legislation--two bills that were  introduced into national legislatures in 2019 were titled "Anti-social Media Bill" (Nigeria) and "Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act" (passed in Singapore) These were vigorously opposed by various human rights groups who condemned them as unacceptable assaults on the fundamental right of freedom of speech. 

baffling, not clarifyinggood teachers work to make things clear to students, those spreading disinformation have other goals and act quite differently. Thus they often employ two techniques (which are really the same thing!)  which can metaphorically and colloquially be described as 1) “muddying the waters” and 2) “if you can’t dazzle them with your brilliance, then baffle them with your bullshit!”

complementarity–the notion that there can be two equally good, complementary but mutually exclusive, even contradictory descriptions or explanations of something.  More fully understanding the reality of the something can involve simultaneously embracing both of these complementary representations, often allowing opposing beliefs to peacefully coexist together inside one’s head!  From ancient China, the yin and yang provide the archetypes of complementary, polar opposites.  Chinese thinkers have sought to explain all natural phenomena and human behavior in terms of a complementary representation involving the dynamic interplay of opposites.  A modern physics complementarity example involves conceiving of light as both a particle and a wave

concept–abstract generalized ideas and understanding that replace a set of sensory experiences and memories.  Example: a very young child handles similar different objects, rectangular blocks, orange, beach ball, tennis ball, toy cars, globe, etc. and eventual-ly forms a concept of "roundness"–that some of the objects handled fit with, others don’t.  The conceptualization process involves observing, abstracting, recalling memories, discriminating, categorizing, etc

conceptual framework (or conceptual map)–an idealized way of making sense out of a complicated world which begins in early childhood with recognizing similarities and differences between objects and building concepts.  The process continues with fitting certain concepts that belong together into conceptual schemes for understanding, then fitting many conceptual schemes together to make a conceptual framework one that gets constantly torn down, rebuilt, and refined over many years–a whole lifetime for some!   

confirmation basis—the tendency to interpret new evidence so as to confirm existing beliefs and ignore that which might challenge them

conflict of interest—professional ethics related term. Writing in 1993 in The New England Journal of Medicine, Dennis F. Thompson defined it as, “a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as a patient’s welfare or the validity of research) tends to be unduly influenced by a secondary interest (such an financial gain).” He goes on to identify the need for professional ethics guidelines that “regulate the disclosure and avoidance of these conditions.”

conspiracism--the belief that increasingly the human experience is shaped by evildoers who often  band together and work behind the scenes to carry out plots that subvert the will of the people and hurt society. Typically,  charges made by conspiracists turn out to be short on facts or logic--many are off the wall inventions that are simply crazy-- and don't stand up to critical scrutiny. Many come from publicity seekers--as in, the more outrageous something you say is, if you make enough noise about it the more you’ll get noticed!  In the last two decades--partly aided by the internet and social media--the influence of conspiracists has dramatically increased. And with it a culture of lies and misinformation.    

corruption—dishonest, unethical, possibly illegal behavior, especially while serving the public in a position of trust, with the motive of personal gain (increase in wealth, power, etc.) / pleasure. Theft through cheating or embezzlement, bribery, conflict of  interest, and unequal treatment of people with favors for  friends / penalties for opponents are examples

critical thinking skillsgenerally refers to skills / ability to take facts and form  judgments.  More specifically it may refer to the skills / ability to do an analysis (breaking down into component parts) of a problem or situation based on facts, how they may be related, cause and effect, logical reasoning, forming and testing hypotheses, etc. And do this to rigorous standards: with enough competence, experience and  knowledge to tackle a problem or case, in an error-free manner , free of wishful thinking, with integrity not prejudice or bias, etc.. Depending on the problem or situation as much or more synthesizing (putting together) may be required. All of this is done to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion, solution, or judgment that fairly represents the situation, is plausible, and meets other tests—most critically it eventually stands up to others’ judgment /appeals, attempts to reproduce, etc. And in this way gains acceptance

cultural evolution--one can argue that what distinguishes humans from animals is that humans have used language, writing, etc. to greatly magnify their capabilities for passing on information to other humans. More simply put--they have culture. Culture can be thought of as information capable of shaping human behavior that individuals acquire from other individuals by teaching, imitation, and other social transmission routes. As that information changes with time cultural evolution occurs. Certainly the last five thousand years since writing developed has since tremendous human cultural evolution.  

Cultural evolution can be likened to and distinguished from genetic evolution (in which genes compete) by introducing units of cultural information called memes.  (See memes.) Genes and memes competing and shaping human behavior as related to their fitness to adapt, survive and flourish in a changing environment can be recognized as part of a bigger process called Universalism Darwinism. (See that entry)

So whereas predominately 

culture wara cultural battle for dominance between social groups with highly divergent worldviews: different beliefs, values, practices, sources of information, etc. The term was first used in the USA in the early 1990s to describe the cultural divide / widespread societal disagreement between traditional conservative and progressive liberal camps with hot button issues such as abortion, same sex marriage, separation of church and state, gun laws, immigration, multiculturalism, etc. Increasingly the battle lines are between those who cynically don't believe the mainstream media,  buy into charges of "fake news" and "a rigged system," embrace certain (mostly fictional) conspiracy theories to some extent, resent experts and the elite, etc. pitted against  those (many with more idealistic, less cynical outlooks) who are comfortable with a society based on facts, science, professionalism, competence, meritocracy, etc where people compete on a playing field based on these things.  

deceit--an act that misrepresents or practice intended to deceive or trick  

defamation / libel / slander –are different names for essentially the same act of making a false written or oral statement about another which unfairly harms the victim’s reputation.  While legal jurisdictions can judge these acts differently, most typically (and in the USA) the false defaming / libeling / slanderous statement must be made to someone other than the victim and is considered a crime

dehumanizing by linking person to the Devil—refers to the practice of attacking / vilifying a person, perhaps as part of an extremist  political agenda,  by linking them to pure evil / the Devil—effectively dehumanizing them.  Examples of how the conspiracy theory driven right wing conservative extremists have employed this tactic: 1) the vilification of Hungarian-American billionaire investor and philanthropist—and victim of assassination attempts—George Soros; 2) the Q Anon conspiracy theory

delusion-- a fixed belief that is not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence. Example: evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, in his book The God Delusion, argues that belief in a personal god is a delusion.

duplicity--deliberately deceptive, dishonest, crafty

erudite--learned and scholarly

ethics–the study of right and wrong in matters of conduct.  A basic division is between metaethics and normative ethics. A goal of metaethics is understanding gained by considering questions like “What is the meaning and nature of moral judgments?” and  How are they defended and supported?” and  “ In what way or ways are they actually used?  A goal of normative ethics involves identifying universal rules (or norms) to guide human behavior with respect to the key question, “How should one act or behave?” Normative ethics can be broken up into (most notably), consequentialist ethics, deontological ethics, utilitarianism, and egoism.

evil, the problem of–this problem has plagued philosophers at least as far back as the ancient Greeks. Epicurus (341-270 BCE) appears to be the first to consider it at some length.  Simply put, it has two aspects, one religious, one secular, that can themselves be stated as questions.  First, why does an all powerful, all knowing God allow evil to exist in the world?  Second, how should society fight human’s wicked and evil acts–won’t fighting them with evil (violence, vengeance, capital punishment, etc.) just result in more evil?  Those who embrace non-violence, forgiveness, and oppose capital punishment basically feel that good can not come out of evil.  Others argue that if evil is left unchecked and unpunished, and not countered with strong action, then more evil will result.  

evil, the problem of  and how various religions handle it –Christianity--from the Bible's book of Job onward, it recognizes there is a problem; Islam --Evil, pain, and suffering is not a problem: it is a fact of Allah's creation.  And Allah does not owe man any explanations...As the holy Qu'ran (4: 78) puts it: "Whatever good befalleth thee, O man, it is from GOD; and whatever evil befalleth thee, it is from thyself."; Hinduism-- "For Hindu thought, there is no Problem of Evil.  The conventional, relative world is necessarily a world of opposites.  Light is inconceivable apart from darkness; order is meaningless without disorder; and likewise...pleasure without pain." (Alan Watts in The Spirit of Zen);  Buddhism--Buddhists use the existence of evil as a reason not to believe in God as a benevolent, loving Creator.  As the Bodhisattva sings, "If the creator of the world entire they call God, of every being be the Lord, why prevail deceit, lies and ignorance and he such inequity and injustice create?  If the creator of the world entire they call God, of every human being be the Lord, then an evil master is he, (O Aritta) knowing what’s right did let wrong prevail! (from Bhuridatta Jataka)  

fact—an occurrence in the real world, independent of belief.  Facts can be verified, that is demonstrated to be consistent with experience of Reality

false balance / both sidesismrefers to journalist efforts—some perhaps a relic of the old USA Fairness Doctrine rescinded in 1987—to even- handedly present both sides of controversial issues, when in fact one of the sides has little or no real case that stands up to an evidence-based approach. To attain something like a balance of arguments—where none is possible they can weigh extreme minority views far too much and downplay consensus, or simply report false claims or misleading arguments that one side presents. Some feel this approach to journalism—along with out of control social media posts-- is a major cause of the epidemic of misinformation sweeping the USA in 2020.

FCC fairness doctrine--was a policy introduced by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1949 and eliminated in 1987. It required that those who held broadcast licenses cover controversial issues of public importance in a way that was fair, honest, and balanced to the extent that contrasting viewpoints were at least presented,  if not allotted equal time. Many feel that rescinding this policy has contributed to the polarization / culture wars in the USA that has developed over the subsequent three plus decades. 

feedback–information modifies the state of a system, changing it so that future system behavior changes. Learning provides a simple example, where the system involved can be, not just our knowledge but, our entire worldview. Here the most important lessons learned change our behavior the most. Voting in an election is another simple example of a feedback process at work. Feedback also has a place in technical devices: where  information about the state of a hardware system (output) is fed back to the system input to adjust, regulate, or modify its behavior.   Positive feedback reinforces input and can lead to exploding (or imploding) output.  Negative feedback opposes input and can lead to stable behavior.  Both can be present in complex systems.  Technology-based  examples include thermostats in heating / cooling systems, and elevator position / speed controls. Biology based feedback examples include blood sugar regulation in the body, populations of prey / predators in ecosystem, etc.

folklore–the body of customs, stories, sayings, jokes, games, legends, oral history, myths, superstitions, etc that relate to the life and spirit of a particular population or group and make up the oral tradition of that culture.  

First Amendment impermissible speech —examples of speech that courts have upheld is not protected by this amendment to the USA constitution include that which is hurtful to others--including threatening, leading to imminent violence or law-breaking, libel, slander, blackmailing--obscene, including child pornography, and perjury (giving false testimony under oath).

First Amendment Rights–refers to the first amendment to the U.S. Constitution which guarantees freedom of religion, of speech, of the press, and right of petition

freedom of the press & speech–something a government can grant its citizens and news / media organizations–believed to be a prerequisite for democracy.  Thomas Jefferson underscored the importance of a free press by saying, "Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter."  More recently the United Nations enshrined this–along with freedom of speech–as a basic human right, proclaiming, "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers."  This language, from The UN Universal Declaration  of Human Rights, has been amended to include that exercising this right carries “special duties and responsibilities” and “may therefore be subject to certain restrictions…[f]or respect of the rights or reputation of others…or the protection of national security or of public order…or of public health or morals.”  Thus making a false statement such as yelling "Fire!" in a crowded movie theatre solely to create a disruption is not permitted speech.  

genegenerally they can be thought of as the basic physical and functional unit of heredity that is transmitted from one generation of living things to the next.  Perhaps more importantly than any other factor, our genes determine what we become–shaping everything from what we look like to how we behave.  Located on chromosomes residing in the nuclei of cells, specifically they are segments of DNA coded to provide instructions for making particular proteins.  

GlobalEdutopia--a single, seven syllable word coined by Project Worldview that refers to a future world where ignorance and today's "business as usual" are no longer key forces driving choices people make regarding their beliefs and values. Five premises are behind the future practical realization of this idealized world --one built on global education,  valuing honesty /learning, and universal access to accurate information that technology can make possible.  

guile--deceitful, cunning, sly, crafty 

guilt–an emotional state produced by knowing that one has committed a breach of conduct or violated moral standards.  If one accepts society’s version of acceptable behavior, the punishment guilt produces is self-administered.   

hypocrisy–basically not practicing what you preach. In equation form, hypocrisy = beliefs (or ideals) – actions

informational dominance – the idea that, as Chris Wylie of Cambridge Analytica put it,  “if you can capture every channel of information around a person and then inject content around them , you can change their perception of what’s actually happening.”

Internet Search Engine use--involves typing word(s) or a question into a software based internet (or web) search tool (like Google), and (hopefully!) benefiting from the results  (information provided)  in terms of learning and problem solving.   Doing this whenever one has a question or problem--indeed, coming to think of the Internet / Web as an extension of your own brain! -- is an important skill to acquire. Those who have this capability clearly have a big advantage over those who don't--provided they learn which sources can be trusted!! 



judgment–the process and / or result of forming an opinion or drawing a conclusion based on consideration of the available evidence or knowledge

justification of belief–This involves 1) believing that according to some standard or by some criterion a statement is actually true, 2) having evidence or data to support the above conclusion, and 3) evaluating the certainty with which the belief is established. In this latter regard, if the evidence or data is complete and fully applicable or relevant to the standard or criterion, the belief can be accepted with certainty; if the evidence is only partially complete and / or not fully applicable or relevant, some doubt should accompany accepting the belief, if it is accepted at all.  And, of course, the standard or criterion used should be subjected to similar scrutiny, or at least identified when promoting the belief.  

Law of the Jungle / Tooth and Claw Ethics–both of these date to the late 19th century, the former was made famous by "Darwin's bulldog" Thomas Huxley, one of the founders of evolutionary ethics, the latter by Rudyard Kipling (perhaps influenced by the Social Darwinist currents of the time) in The Jungle Book.  Earlier, British poet Tennyson had characterized nature as "red in tooth and claw."  The Law of the Jungle is basically "kill or be killed."    

learning domains–traditionally educational activities and associated objectives are sometimes categorized using three domains: 1) cognitive –relating to comprehending and intellectual processing of information and knowledge in forming concepts, having ideas, and having beliefs,                     2) affective–relating to the emotions associated with learning experiences, and   3) psychomotor–relating to the physical activity and motor skills component of learning.  Some include also include 4) social—relating to communication, teamwork, management, leadership, etc. Very loosely these four learning domains can be related to Project Worldview’s thinking, feeling, doing, and joining.    

logical reasoning, use in math, science & engineering–such reasoning most notably involves use of deduction and induction. Deduction starts with axioms: unquestioned facts /assumptions / premises.  It then applies rules and through a sequential process necessarily arrives at new facts / conclusions.  It is a "top down" approach.  In contrast, induction, in "bottom up" fashion, takes many related facts and generalizes them to arrive at a rule or rules.  The former proceeds from wholes / more general to parts / more specific, whereas the latter moves in the opposite direction.  Beginning with Euclidean geometry, much of mathematics developed in deductive fashion.  In applied science and engineering, specific problems can be solved by a deductive process in which an accepted scientific theory is used to formulate a specific hypothesis to test / confirm.  This can be rather mundane.  Exciting scientific advances often result from an inductive process: from many observations, patterns are found, leading to hypotheses and ultimately, a more broadly applicable theory

love vs. hate–Collier describes love as having to do "with bringing together into a whole that which belongs together" and hate "with enforcing separation and difference, driving apart [what is] inherently whole."

machiavellian–an approach to getting what you want summed up in the famous quote, "The end justifies the means."  Specifically, the desired end is increasing power and control.  The opportunistic means employed to achieve this are whatever it takes, including deception, deviousness, duplicity, and cunning manipulation of others

meme--a theoretical unit of cultural information such as an idea, particular behavior, story, etc. that propagate from mind to mind guiding human cultural evolution, in analogy with genes carrying genetic information, propagating from organism to organism and guiding biological evolution.  Whereas genes are transmitted in reproduction, memes are most fundamentally transmitted through imitation. Example: in cultural evolution units of information known as memes compete rather than genes. Brought down to earth this can involve consumers preferring a product—perhaps a book or a song—and buying it, so as a “winner”  more of it are made and it has a longer lifetime than all of the similar but  not preferred books or songs that “losers”. See cultural evolution.

mendacious--characterized by association with lies, falsehoods, untruths

misinformation vs. disinformationboth refer to false  information, use of the latter term means that the false information is being knowingly spread to deceive others.

moral hazard–results when a person,  institution, or large group of people is partly shielded from risk (due to insurance, prospects of government bailout, safety features, etc.) and acts differently (is less careful creating a hazard.)  Examples: 1) drivers with airbags drive more recklessly, confident that if they crash the airbags will protect them; 2) a person wearing a face mask mingles more closely and more often with people during a pandemic like corona virus than he or she would without the face mask; 3) an investor buys non-investment grade (junk) corporate bonds because of the perception that the company is “too big to fail” and the government will come to the rescue, if need be, to prevent that from happening

morality–knowledge, teachings and practices related to deciding the rightness or wrongness of actions, that is in making moral judgments, which together define a code of conduct for a society.    

nature vs. nurture--refers to the ongoing debate over the extent to which human behavior and evolution is largely innate / preprogrammed by our genetic heritage (genes) or is chiefly shaped by the environment in which we are raised, what we learn from it and from those who care for and teach us as we grow (memes). Experimental support emphasizing the importance of heredity comes from studies of identical twins (sharing the same genes) raised apart, whereas ongoing studies of the brain--in particular findings that show how the brain can “rewire” itself in response to environmental pressures (including head injury)--illustrate that despite the complex, innate structure of the mind, the learning environment fundamentally shapes human behavior.

ontology--most generally this refers to the nature of existence or Reality; more specifically it can refer to the details in a description of Reality--say the concepts, categories, and connections between them as part of a framework to describe Reality  

positivism (as applied to science)–the belief that science should concern itself only with what can be directly observed.  In philosophy it is a form of phenomenalism, the doctrine that only objective phenomena perceived by the senses, and not subjective things or abstract constructions, are known. Thus Ernest Mach, both physicist and positivist, never accepted the reality of atoms (which in his heyday around 1900, had not been captured in photographic images, like they have been today).  Even in the 21st century, a few "positivists" question aspects of physicists' theories.  For example, they fault the Standard Model (of fundamental building blocks of matter / forces ) for being based on constructs like quarks and gluons–which in principle can never be isolated and observed.  Most physicists are not so constrained, being "realists" who will support whatever model does the best job of explaining the observations and making useful predictions.  Few, if any, however, will involve metaphysical entities (vital spirits or whatever) for which there is no observational evidence in their modeling of Reality

Q Anon conspiracy theory—launched in 2017, this involves a great mysterious good guy patriot Q who is an battling evil collusion between deep state forces embedded in the US government, Satan worshippers,  and child molesting pedophiles.  The battle is supposed to culminate with the “A Great Wakening” in which people in general finally realize that Q Anon believers have been right about the threat all along—and the final victory of the forces of good / God over the deep state / Satan forces.

rationalism–a philosophical orientation that links finding ultimate truth to employing reasoning

Reality–the totality of all things, structures (actual and conceptual), events (past and present) and phenomena, whether observable or not; what a worldview (whether it be based on individual or shared human experience) ultimately attempts to describe or map.    

reality generating mechanisms–according to John Casti, these are particular ways of seeing the world, each possessing its own terminology, tools, and methods.  Examples are science, religion, mysticism, poetry, music, literature and art.  Each of these represents a particular way of seeing Reality and thus determining what is seen.     

relativism and science–relativism is the philosophical belief that truth can vary with culture and circumstances and that there are no truly objective standards or criteria for judging it.  Some relativists have pointed out that scientists are people who, like others, are captives of society's constructs and prevailing beliefs (which can change).  Many go on to question both science's objectivity and its progress toward uncovering fundamental truths.  In response, Nobel Prize winning physicist Steven Weinberg replies, "It is simply a logical fallacy to go from the observation that science is a social process to the conclusion that the final product, our scientific theories, is what it is because of the social and historical forces acting..."  He goes on to make an analogy with those arguing about the best path up a mountain peak, and concludes that they ultimately either "find a good path to the peak or they do not, and when they get there they know it."    

reproducible results–results obtained by careful adherence to, and documentation of, experimental or other procedures so others can repeat the work and verify them.  Obtaining such results is a goal of scientific investigation

Social Darwinism -- the application of Darwinian principles (natural selection, survival of the fittest, etc) to social practices as a natural defense of entrepreneurial capitalism

social media--according to Wikipedia they are, "interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation or sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks" Just as internet search engine use capability provides a big learning / problem solving advantage to those who have it over those who don't, those skilled in social media use have a big "influencing people and changing attitudes / behavior" advantage.  Of course social media  are notorious for spreading disinformation! 

testability–refers to the idea that for a statement or hypothesis to be considered scientifically acceptable it must be testable–that is, conceivably it could be shown to be false.  Example: consider two similar statements: 1) the entire universe is permeated with an undetectable pure substance: the quintessence;  2) all space is permeated by a substance that is at absolute rest (meaning all motion is relative to it): the ether.  The first is not a scientific statement because it is not testable.  The second statement was most notably tested in the famous Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1887.    

theory–a general principle or principles based on well tested hypotheses put forward to characterize and explain a collection of facts and observations associated with some area of investigation.  Out of particularly good theories, come predictions, which, if verified, lead to investigators placing greater confidence in the theory

trickster, the– a spirit or figure typically linked with disorder, mischief, and chaos (from the folklore and mythology of diverse cultural traditions).  Ancient Europeans have linked the trickster with gods like Prometheus, Hermes, and Dionysus, while Native Americans have connected him with foxes, ravens, coyotes, etc.  For this latter group, tricksters were often clowns who made them laugh–something they deemed a prerequisite before they could properly commune with what they considered sacred.  In general, tricksters have been associated with bringing change–sometimes initially disruptive, painful and unwanted, but ultimately a positive cultural development.  Modern analysts of the civil rights movement in 20th century America have interpreted Rosa Parks' 1955 refusal to give up her seat at the front of the Montgomery bus as a trickster tale

Universal Darwinism—extends and generalizes  Darwin’s natural selection based theory beyond biological evolution so that it can be applied to other domains including culture,  psychology, economics, medicine,  quantum physics, etc.  Thus Darwin’s basic idea that organisms change slowly over time in a sustained interaction with their biological environment in adapting extends to encompass entities or forms competing in a fitness landscape.  The process has three basic components: 1) there are many variations of a basic form (produced by mutations which can be random); 2) the variant of the form best adapted to the environment (“the fittest”) is selected by what has been called an “evolutionary algorithm”); 3) the most fit form lives on as it is promoted by a hereditary mechanism—thus it survives and reproduces whereas less fit forms die out.  

utilitarianism–the belief that the moral value of actions and associated outcomes should be judged according to the degree to which they are useful and benefit those affected.  Utilitarians evaluate the moral rightness of actions by  the extent to which they produce the greatest benefit to all concerned.  Utilitarianism has two aspects: 1) it links evaluating consequences of actions to human welfare, and accordingly, 2) how it ranks values (value theory) and ties them to human welfare.  The latter involves all the complexities of arguments over what gives individuals pleasure or happiness, conflicts between individual choice and societal preference, what benefits society in the long run, etc.  And it recognizes that assigning value is not merely done by adding benefits, since what is beneficial to some may be detrimental to others, and both the benefits and risks of possible actions must be weighed.    

value judgment–comparing either something concrete (person, object, etc.) or something abstract (quality, principle, etc.) to some idealized standard.  A value judgment is what bridges the gap between "what is" and "what ought to be."  Closely related is the act of valuing, which can be thought of as choosing (from alternatives) and taking appropriate action to acquire something (concrete or abstract) or hold onto it

veracity--associated with truth and accuracy

wishful thinking–involves interpreting events / actions of others, decision-making and forming beliefs based on what one desires to be true (rather than what is true) or what is the pleasing to imagine (rather than facing the perhaps grim?) reality behind a situation.   A related orientation–involving deluding oneself and similarly lacking in rational analysis / real world grounding–is "wishing makes it so."  This simplistic, fairy tale, magical, childhood fantasy way of dealing with problems is to be contrasted with the planning / hard work / repeated trials before success that adults solving real problems more typically are faced with.                    

worldviewa conceptual framework and a set of beliefs used to make sense out of a complex, seemingly chaotic Reality based on  your perceptions, experience and learning.  Besides incorporating a purpose or "raison d’etre," it provides an outlook or expectation for the world as it exists or is perceived to exist–one that you base predictions about the future on.  It continually evolves–indeed, you spend the rest of your life testing and refining it, based on feedback you get.  As it develops, it increasingly it becomes the source of your goals and desires, and as such it shapes your behavior and values.

worldview literacy–mastery of the concepts, terminology, and background related to a wide range of beliefs and worldview component themes and at least basic understanding of these beliefs and themes.  Such mastery and understanding are indicative of someone whose own worldview is well developed.  This shows one has benefited from past or ongoing consideration of many diverse beliefs and worldview themes and has selectively incorporated a few of them into his or her worldview only after an examination of how compatible they are with the rest of the framework.         



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