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Related Words, Beliefs, Background

Relating to Others, Values, Education
and Worldview Development

alphabetical listing: A to K 

  alphabetical listing, continued: L to Z
bridge values -- either as part of an effort to resolve a conflict or in discussions between those having widely separated positions on some issue of concern, these are shared values that can be used to find common ground to build a settlement on, or bridge the gulf of misunderstanding.  Example: suppose family members, watching a beloved parent’s health fail, disagree on the extent to which modern medical technology should be employed to extent the parent’s life. After discussion they find that they agree on not wanting their parent to be in pain. Given this “Our parent ought not to be in pain” bridge value, they can seek additional common ground and agree on a plan of action.

central conflict -- the conflict between one’s real self and one’s idealized self (according to one theory of personality).

character education–according to the Character Education Partnership, it seeks to develop "ethical, responsible, and caring young people by modeling and teaching good character through emphasis on universal values."  Others broaden it to include fostering emotional intelligence, building social / conflict resolution skills,  promoting critical thinking, etc. 

cognitive dissonance--refers to the inner tension or perceived incompatibility that one feels from holding conflicting beliefs or behaving in a way that compromises one's deeply held beliefs or values

conflict resolution -- the act or process of settling or making an effort or attempt to settle a conflict, that is, a situation or disagreement characterized by tension, antagonism, and sides whose motives, purposes, and intentions seem totally at odds and perhaps irreconcilable. The process can involve informal discussion or a formal procedure with rules and mediator(s).

cultural literacy -- the ability to converse fluently in an appropriate cultural context, that is with allusions to common core knowledge, using idioms, slang and communicating informally in a way that generally connects with the dominant culture where one lives

ethics -- the study of right and wrong in matters of conduct

financial literacy--according to the National Endowment for Financial Education, this is "the ability to read, analyze, manage, and communicate about the personal financial conditions that affect material well-being. Financial literacy includes the ability to discern financial choices, discuss money and financial issues without (or despite) discomfort, plan for the future, and respond competently to life events that affect everyday financial decisions, including events in the general economy."

intractable conflicts -- conflicts that are particularly difficult to resolve because they involve complex issues, communication difficulties, and deep-seated, often unacknowledged differences in worldviews. The people on opposing sides often feel threatened by the other side -- indeed they may feel that their sense of identity, cherished beliefs or way of life is being attacked. Besides involving conflicting worldviews, typically such conflicts also involve material goods, resources, or involve some concrete real or potential impacts on people and their environment -- impacts that are threatening.

practice what you preach -- a proverbial admonition that urges you to do yourself what you advise others to do, or more generally to behave according to your otherwise enunciated beliefs and values.  If the gulf between the reality of your behavior and your ideals is great then you may be criticized (by yourself or others) for being a hypocrite, and  your self esteem and / or effectiveness at motivating others may suffer. 


self actualization -- the ultimate personal development state as studied by Maslow and other psychologists. Self actualized people, according to Maslow have achieved, “the full use and exploitation of talent, capacities, potentialities, etc.” They are self confident but also possess humility that allows them to listen carefully to others and admit their ignorance. They see life more clearly than others partly due to a better understanding of themselves. With this superior perception comes a better sense of right and wrong. Among their attributes, Maslow includes “honesty and naturalness, the transcendence of selfish and personal motivations, the giving up of lower desires in favor of higher ones.” Such people feel a strong bond or kinship with the rest of humanity. They typically seek important and meaningful work.

scientific literacy--according to the National Academy of Sciences, this is "the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity. It also includes specific types of abilities."

technological literacy-- involves understanding what technology is, how it works, what it's good for, and specifically how it can be used to best accomplish specific tasks.  Measuring it involves gauging one's comfort level with technology "encompassing three interdependent dimensions: (1) knowledge; (2) ways of thinking and acting; and (3) capabilities" (the latter according to the National Academy of Engineering).  

value judgment -- comparing either something concrete (person, object, etc) or something abstract (quality, principle, etc) to some idealized standard. A value judgment is what bridges the gap between “what is” and “what ought to be”. Closely related is the act of valuing, which can be thought of as choosing (from alternatives) and taking appropriate action to acquire something (concrete or abstract) or hold onto it.

values -- abstract qualities, principles, beliefs, or aspects of behavior that a person or a whole society holds in high regard after making value judgments.

values articulation -- clarifying values and both 1) affirming them in terms meaningful to others, and 2) exploring the implications of practicing and applying them -- and being able to do both of these in relation to different cultural traditions or within the framework of various diverse belief systems / worldviews.

values clarification, steps in the process of valuing -- 1) privately prizing and cherishing; 2) publicly affirming beliefs and choosing one’s behavior (when appropriate); 3) choosing from alternatives; 4) choosing after consideration of consequences; 5) acting on one’s beliefs; 6) acting with a pattern

worldview literacy--mastery of both the concepts, terminology, and background related to a wide range of beliefs and worldview component themes and at least basic understanding of these beliefs and themes.  Such mastery and understanding are indicative of someone whose own worldview is well developed.  This shows one has benefited from past or ongoing consideration of many diverse beliefs and worldview themes and has selectively incorporated a few of them into his or her worldview only after an examination of how compatible they are with the rest of the framework.  


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